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  • OTW Fannews: No Place to Hide

    By thatwasjustadream on Søndag, 15 November 2015 - 5:23pm
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    • AdNews discussed the use of YouTube fandoms as a marketing bonanza. "The quality of talent on display, and the reaction of fans got the point across about the premium content YouTube has to offer...Stuart Bailey, chief digital officer at OMD Australia, believes that, 'long gone are the days when clients would associate YouTube with skateboarding cats and other such content. It now has content credential in spades. Google certainly flexed their ‘influencer’ muscles and showed that some of their YouTube talent are stars in their own right, with engaged and loyal audiences - some queuing from 6am to catch a peek of their favourite YouTube stars,' Bailey said. 'The trick will be how to tap into that talent to not only communicate with a brand’s customers and consumers but to add value and customised experiences.'"
    • Comic Book Bin asked whether fan films should be crowdsourced. "I believe that copyrights holders should be tolerant of fan films and fan fiction but to a limit. When fan fiction and fan film creators earn money from the unlicensed properties they exploit, that is a problem. More than voluntarily breaching the rights of copyrights owners, they earn revenues from properties they have no right to exploit. If you want to make a Batman film, do it on your own, bear all the costs. Use it as a portfolio piece. But to go out of your way to ask people to fund your Batman film is wrong. You don’t own Batman."
    • MTV.com spoke glowingly about erotic fanfiction competitions and noted it's an expanding business. "If you’re not in San Francisco or New York, you can still observe the NSFW madness from afar. Shipwreck also has a regular podcast where they post recordings of their live show, as well as a Tumblr where you can read previous works — and last night they just announced they’ll be publishing a book sometime next year."
    • QSR promoted a Dairy Queen competition for fans. "Along with a new television advertising campaign dedicated entirely to Fans, both the Random Acts of Fandom Giveaway and the ad campaign showcase a wide variety of DQ Fans professing love for their favorite people, places, and things including vintage cars and the perfect nature hideout."

    What efforts to tap the fandom market have you been seeing? Write about them in Fanlore! Contributions are welcome from all fans.

    We want your suggestions! If you know of an essay, video, article, podcast, or link you think we should know about, comment on the most recent OTW Fannews post. Links are welcome in all languages! Submitting a link doesn't guarantee that it will be included in a Fannews post, and inclusion of a link doesn't mean that it is endorsed by the OTW.

  • OTW Fannews: Becoming the Norm

    By Sarah Remy on Tirsdag, 10 November 2015 - 5:16pm
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    • Variety gave the entertainment industry a heads up on a critical fair use ruling in a case involving viral videos. Fair use is the key copyright provision protecting fanworks in the U.S. "'Equals Three’s use of Jukin’s videos is admittedly commercial. Nevertheless, the commercial nature of the use is outweighed by the episode’s transformativeness,' Judge Stephen V. Wilson of the U.S. District Court for the Central District of California wrote in the Oct. 13 decision. What makes the use 'transformative' is not clear-cut, the judge noted: 'Determining whether Equals Three’s episodes parody Jukin’s videos is a difficult and nuanced task.' But Judge Wilson ruled that even if Equals Three’s episodes are not parodies, the episodes comment on or criticize Jukin’s videos and are therefore allowable under fair use."
    • An article in The Atlantic discussed the importance of the Google Books decision for fair use. "This isn’t only good news for fans of Google Books. It helps makes the legal boundaries of fair use clear to other organizations who may try to take advantage of it, including libraries and non-profits. 'It gives us a better senses of where fair use lies,' says Dan Cohen, the executive director of the Digital Public Library of America." What's more "Experts say that the Supreme Court is unlikely to hear an appeal, because so many district court judges, and two different federal circuits, have found themselves so broadly in agreement about the nature of transformative use online."
    • Another writer in The Atlantic noted that transformative use is everywhere in both authorized and non-authorized forms today. "The question for authors to consider in this brave new world of mimicry, both professional and otherwise, is to what extent they consider their characters to be theirs and theirs alone. For most, it isn’t something that will become an issue during their lifetime: Copyright law stipulates that books only enter the public domain 70 years after the death of the author, even if most fanfic writers aren’t limited in terms of what they can post online."
    • Digital Book World proposed that publishing focus on the content not the wrapper when producing work. "[F]an fiction has quite possibly become the biggest sleeper hit of the digital age. According to some estimates, around a third of all the content posted on Wattpad and Tumblr is created by fans. As a commercial proposition, fan fiction is embryonic, but I think publishers have a lot to learn from its speed and agility. Fan fiction stays close to its audience (indeed, creator and consumer are often indistinguishable), it centers on recognizable brands and it iterates quickly. And most importantly, it’s platform-neutral. The wrapper—whether this is a Tumblr post, Wattpad story or ebook—isn’t the end product; it’s a means of transmission."

    What do you think have been the key moments in the spread of fanworks? Write about them in Fanlore! Contributions are welcome from all fans.

    We want your suggestions! If you know of an essay, video, article, podcast, or link you think we should know about, comment on the most recent OTW Fannews post. Links are welcome in all languages! Submitting a link doesn't guarantee that it will be included in a Fannews post, and inclusion of a link doesn't mean that it is endorsed by the OTW.

  • OTW Legal Contributes to Victory in Lenz v. Universal

    By Kiri Van Santen on Fredag, 18 September 2015 - 3:47pm
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    Banner by Erin of a spotlight on an OTW logo with the words 'Spotlight on Legal Issues'

    Way back in 2007, Stephanie Lenz posted a 29-second video on YouTube of her 18-month-old son dancing in her kitchen. Playing in the background was Prince's song "Let's Go Crazy." Little did Lenz know that eight years later, she'd be responsible for an important development in copyright fair use law.

    Universal, which owns the copyright to the Prince song, demanded that the video be removed from YouTube by issuing a "takedown notice" under the U.S. Digital Millennium Copyright Act. But the law is clear: in order to issue a takedown notice for an allegedly infringing use, the copyright holder must swear or affirm under penalty of perjury that the use is not "authorized by law," and Lenz's transformative, non-commercial video appeared to be a clear-cut example of fair use--in other words, it was authorized by the law. With help from the Electronic Frontier Foundation, Lenz fought back against Universal's overreaching demand.

    It has been a long road since then, but Lenz has not only prevailed--she's helped confirm important principles of law. Lenz won her argument that the video was fair use, and in 2013, before the U.S. Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals, Lenz argued that Universal's failure to consider fair use constituted "bad faith" and that Universal should be punished for trying to have the video taken down. At that point the OTW, with help from allies the Stanford Fair Use Project, Public Knowledge, and the International Documentary Association, submitted an amicus brief to the court explaining that unfounded allegations of copyright infringement, like Universal's, are abuses of the DMCA that harm fair use and lawful speech. We argued that the law requires rights holders to form a good faith belief about whether a use is fair before issuing a takedown notice under the DMCA—and should punish those who take a “shoot first and ask questions later” approach as Universal did for Ms. Lenz’s video.

    In agreeing with Lenz and the OTW, The Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals stated some very important principles, chief among them that "[f]air use is not just excused by the law, it is wholly authorized by the law." This is something we have been saying for a long time: U.S. copyright law gives people an affirmative right to engage in fair use of copyrighted material. Other courts have said that fair use is a lawful use of copyright, and fair use means there is no copyright infringement.

    In the Lenz case, the court said that explicitly: fair use isn't "infringement that's excused" -- it's a use that was never infringement in the first place. The court went on to hold that a copyright holder must consider whether a use was fair before issuing a DMCA takedown notice, and failure to consider fair use constitutes punishable bad faith. The court quoted the OTW's brief in its explanation that it may be possible to consider fair use while still using computer algorithms to search for infringement, but that it will require the computer algorithms to be tailored for fair use by, for example, sending a takedown notice only where their algorithm finds entire works with completely matching audio and video tracks.

    This ruling is great news for fans and transformative creators, and we thank our allies who worked tirelessly to make it happen -- but our work is far from done. The Lenz ruling is good, but we believe it doesn't go far enough to protect fair use. It only requires copyright holders to form a "subjective good faith belief" that the use isn't fair use, which leaves too much room for copyright holders to issue takedown notices that are objectively wrong. Most people who receive improper takedown notices or notices based on bad decisions don't have the backing of a powerhouse like the EFF - or know that they'll have the support of the OTW - to help them fight back, and they shouldn't have to fight in the first place. DMCA takedowns can be frightening, especially when they're unwarranted and unjustifiable. And even when someone's right, fighting is hard: this fight took eight years. We hope the next fights are easier, but we know they might not be. We will continue to fight for fair use and help fans who receive unfair takedown notices. If that's you, contact us at legal@transformativeworks.org.

    For a copy of the OTW's December 13, 2013 brief, see the OTW Legal page. For more information about the case and the ruling, see the EFF's site and discussion of the case and ruling and Legal Staffer Heidi's post about the ruling.

  • OTW Fannews: Fandom Bedfellows

    By .Ellorgast on Søndag, 16 August 2015 - 4:09pm
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    • The University of Leicester announced a conference on Fandom and Religion. "'Fandom is a major activity today: people’s passions become major commitments, and fans start seeming like religious devotees,' says Dr Clive Marsh, Director of Lifelong Learning at the University of Leicester, who is one of the organisers. 'I am particularly interested in researching the intensity with which people exercise their fandom, and how this signals the meaning and purpose that people find in, and through, their fan activity. Functionally at least, this can prove to be very similar indeed to religious practice.'”
    • BizCommunity discussed results of a survey of music fans and categorized them by eight 'Logics of Engagement'. "Music fans engage in their passion differently country by country. For example, the festive culture of Brazilians make them the fans that engage most strongly through the logic of Social Connection (62%), whereas 9 out of 10 Chinese fans engage through the logic of Play. Furthermore, age matters. Young fans aged 13-17 engage the most strongly through Immersion when they listen to music (64%). A majority of fans that are 35 and older engage through the Logic of Exploration (59%)."
    • Barnes and Noble was targeting fangirls as part of its Pop Culture events. "Barnes & Noble is calling all fangirls to its stores nationwide for a special Fangirl Friday meet-up...to celebrate fandom. From 'Potterheads' to 'Whovians' to YA Booklovers, there’s a fandom for everyone, and Barnes & Noble is calling all fangirls to unite and visit their local store to enjoy special events, giveaways and more. Cosplay is welcomed. Additionally, while supplies last, customers can pick up the Vinyl Vixen Metallic Wonder Woman, available only at Barnes & Noble."
    • Cosmopolitan discussed an unfortunate overlap between Cameron Dallas fans and porn viewers. "Cameron Dallas is a dreamy, wholesome male Vine and YouTube star who is 20 years old. As is typical of this genre of celebrity, his fans are mostly teen girls. So I found it pretty disturbing last night when those fans started posting tons of selfies for Cameron on Twitter under their fandom name: Cam Girls. Anyone who has used the Internet probably knows what a cam girl is (other than a Cameron Dallas fan, apparently) and if you don't, I'll just tell you right now: "Cam girl" is short for "webcam girl," a woman who strips and does porn via webcam for money. Another fact about cam girls is that — like most other businesses — they often use Twitter to foster a following."

    What strange bedfellows have you seen in fandom? Write about them in Fanlore! Contributions are welcome from all fans.

    We want your suggestions! If you know of an essay, video, article, podcast, or link you think we should know about, comment on the most recent OTW Fannews post. Links are welcome in all languages! Submitting a link doesn't guarantee that it will be included in a Fannews post, and inclusion of a link doesn't mean that it is endorsed by the OTW.

  • OTW Fannews: The Mirror Writers

    By Claudia Rebaza on Fredag, 10 April 2015 - 5:32pm
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    Banner by Alice of a fountain tip pen dragging away from a mirror

    • A number of media articles have recently mentioned fanfiction in relation with the pro side of writing. One was in TIME where Rhys Griffiths discusses the continuation novel. Describing various works not written by the original authors, Rhys calls them an attempt "to obscure the act of literary ventriloquism that is occurring. The continuation novel differs from fan fiction (also enjoying a purple patch, which is unlikely to be a coincidence) chiefly in its ‘official’ nature. The books are commissioned by the deceased author’s estate, written with its approval, and marketed using both author’s brand associations."
    • A more direct example of 'literary ventriloquism' appeared in Flavorwire, which posted about fiction ghostwriting. "In this respect, both the YouTube megastar and the self-effacing ghostwriter are weirdly analogous to the writer of fanfiction and the self-published author, both of whom publishing has gone to great lengths to exploit in recent years. The now competing self-publishing models of Apple and Amazon point to an automated future...of a 'consumer' driven model that relies on upvoting." The article concludes that "The fact that the reader gets to choose 'precisely what she wants to read before any work goes to press,' neutralizes the dream of fiction...to alter what we think is possible. It becomes nothing but a magic mirror that reaffirms our prejudices."
    • It is writers' prejudices that concern Jordan West, who gives advice on diversifying characters in fanfiction. "As much diversity as there is in fan communities, it shouldn’t be difficult for people to find reflections of themselves in fic. Fan works aren’t restrained by the same conventions as mainstream media, so we can’t blame editors or producers for telling us what we’re allowed to write. The go-to feeling for reading a fic should be based on whether you like it, not gratitude that it even exists."
    • Games Radar profiled tie-in novelist Karen Traviss, who discussed both the freedoms and restrictions of being paid to write for a gaming franchise. "One guy told me he'd proudly showed the first novel to his family to demonstrate that the game that had kept him working almost 24/7 for the last couple of years was something that had an existence beyond gameplay, and that a novelist, an 'independent' arbiter of its worth in a way, had seen the same magic in it that he had. I thought that was very touching, and I don't use the word touching about the industry very often."

    Where are the lines you see between fanworks and their pro counterparts? Write about them in Fanlore! Contributions are welcome from all fans.

    We want your suggestions! If you know of an essay, video, article, podcast, or link you think we should know about, comment on the most recent OTW Fannews post. Links are welcome in all languages! Submitting a link doesn't guarantee that it will be included in a Fannews post, and inclusion of a link doesn't mean that it is endorsed by the OTW.

  • OTW Fannews: This Is Your Life

    By Claudia Rebaza on Søndag, 15 March 2015 - 4:27pm
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    Banner by Lisa of a young woman looking down at a cell phone and smiling.

    • At xojane, Emily Ansara Baines claimed I Learned Everything I Know About Sex From Reading X-Files Fan Fiction in High School. "Thanks to fan fiction, I didn’t mind some dirty talk. I also finally started to understand how oral sex was supposed to work and maybe even be enjoyable. While anal didn’t intrigue me, thanks to X-Files fan fiction I saw how it could be romantic and not, as my girlfriends told me, demeaning. So, when it came to me actually having sex, I felt prepared. At 16, I was the youngest of my friends to embark on that experience."
    • Rosemarie Alejandrino wrote about her anger at the idea that fanfiction should be hidden. "A friend of mine told me that her parents had lectured her about not reading enough books and wasting all her time on the computer. Then she said to me in confidence, 'I read thousands of words a day, and I can’t tell anybody because … all I read is ‘Glee’ lesbian fanfiction.' And suddenly I was angry. As someone who found solace and comfort in reading, who looked up to the Matildas and the Belles and the Rory Gilmores of the world, I couldn’t imagine what it must be like to be ashamed of reading and to keep such an impactful part of your life hidden from the world."
    • While some students are winning cash prizes for their fanfiction, others decided to teach about it. The Daily Californian featured a story on a pair of undergraduates at UC Berkeley exploring erotic fanfiction. "At a weekly DeCal class called “The Theory of Fanfiction,” students share and explore the forms and themes of fan fiction. Students meet each Monday to discuss the genre’s role in the literary world as well as in society as a whole. Through the class, started this semester by UC Berkeley senior Isadora Lamego and junior Katrina Hall, students explore the history of fandom, the role of social media in developing the genre and fan fiction’s importance in providing a vehicle for alternative sexuality and kink expression."
    • Ten Eighty looked at the line between hearing your audience and turning their interests or identities into an ongoing joke. “There is a possibility of a Queer kid seeing that thumbnail, clicking on it with the hope of their favourite YouTuber coming out as part of their Queer/LGBTQ+ community,” says Jazza. “For the YouTuber to use that click-bait and to then shoot down the possibility of them being Queer as being weird and gross, that’s what made me angry.”

    How have fanworks been part of your life? Write about it in Fanlore! Contributions are welcome from all fans.

    We want your suggestions! If you know of an essay, video, article, podcast, or link you think we should know about, comment on the most recent OTW Fannews post. Links are welcome in all languages! Submitting a link doesn't guarantee that it will be included in a Fannews post, and inclusion of a link doesn't mean that it is endorsed by the OTW.

  • OTW Fannews: Commercial Exploits

    By Kiri Van Santen on Fredag, 23 January 2015 - 5:27pm
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    • Many fans of Fall Out Boy launched a petition to protest a proposed event by podcaster Jensen Karp which would revolve around reading "the most ridiculous REAL fanfiction about them on the web." The event was later cancelled though it remained unclear how much participation the band itself had had in the plans.
    • The use of fans' work by third parties was less clear in an announcement by YouTube gamer PewDiePie who launched a fanfic contest with himself as the subject, noting that "The contest will be sponsored by Mountain Dew." Three finalists would have their story submission turned into an animated video. The Terms and Conditions of the contest noted that aside from transferring the rights to all entries (whether they were winners or not) to "Sponsor, Administrator and their agents along with PewDiePie" that the fanworks "must not denegrate the subject, Mountain Dew brand, product and/or trademark."
    • At the American Library Association's District Dispatch, Carrie Russell bemoaned the US Digital Millennium Copyright Act process that also forces OTW Legal to repeatedly defend the exemptions it won for fan video makers in 2009 and 2012. "Here’s the problem: Sometimes DRM gets in the way of actions that are not infringements of copyright. Let’s say you have lawful access to an e-book (you bought the book, fair and square), but you are a person with a print disability, and you need to circumvent to enable text-to-speech (TTS) functionality which has been disabled by DRM. This is a violation of the circumvention provision. One would think that this kind of circumvention is reasonable, because it simply entails making a book accessible to the person that purchased it." Russell called for the exemptions to be made permanent and eliminate the months of time spent by petitioners and government alike.
    • An article in The Guardian highlighted the various benefits of new technology in expanding what producers and consumers are able to exchange (even if fans had long been there first). "The rise of these electronic devices built only for reading has been a boon to the books sector. The transition to digital reading brought with it a new kind of publishing that was distinctly more experimental, energetic and (nakedly) commercial than that which preceded it. Just this week the publisher Little, Brown began publishing ebook shorts based on the hugely successful Broadchurch TV series that are made available to download in the hours after each show."

    How have you seen fans' work adopted and co-opted? Write about it in Fanlore! Contributions are welcome from all fans.

    We want your suggestions! If you know of an essay, video, article, podcast, or link you think we should know about, comment on the most recent OTW Fannews post. Links are welcome in all languages! Submitting a link doesn't guarantee that it will be included in a Fannews post, and inclusion of a link doesn't mean that it is endorsed by the OTW.

  • OTW Fannews: Spotting Fanworks

    By Jennifer Rose Hale on Søndag, 21 September 2014 - 5:11pm
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    Graphic of digital music play screen with text Spotting Fanworks
    • Business 2 Community featured fan video work in a recent post and looked at some stats. "In the past 30 days, Doctor Who has garnered 7.9 million views on YouTube with 355 videos uploaded about the show. Doctor Who also had its series 8 premiere in this window of time...By comparison, BBC’s Merlin (which has been off the air for nearly three years) had around 33 thousand views across 140 videos in the past 30 days. It is apparent that new official content drives views, but fandom still makes videos even without any new footage available. If we compare Doctor Who with smash hit Harry Potter for the past 30 days, Doctor Who still wins. But Harry Potter still has a healthy 2.8 million views across 89 videos."
    • The Asian Age looked at audio works. "In an emerging musical microtrend, fans of many such literary and cinematic fictional franchises have taken to creating and downloading 'ambient mixes' in a bid to recreate their favourite spaces and sequences from the narrative...Vasudev Rathore sees in ambient mixes a way to give your life a background score and make routine or even tedious things feel more exciting. Add to this an association with your favourite books or movies and the outcome is unparalleled. 'You can make a novel come alive by recreating its environment using ambient sounds. I have started reading Lord of The Rings and Harry Potter again with these new sound mixes in the background. It is a whole new experience.'"
    • The Hollywood Reporter's feature on the future of films included the role of fans, though it was perhaps a little behind the times in not acknowledging that fan films were already here. "The accessibility of tech makes it all possible for us to produce — and own. The intellectual property of our own tales will be ours to use and repurpose in new innovative ways. We’ll see them screened and voted upon (like The Voice), with the winners getting widespread release. It will be an entirely new business model. You've heard about Fan Fiction? Get ready for Fan Film, in which self becomes film studio."

    What fanwork features have you seen? Write about them in Fanlore! Contributions are welcome from all fans.

    We want your suggestions! If you know of an essay, video, article, podcast, or link you think we should know about, comment on the most recent OTW Fannews post. Links are welcome in all languages! Submitting a link doesn't guarantee that it will be included in a Fannews post, and inclusion of a link doesn't mean that it is endorsed by the OTW.

  • OTW Legal Files Amicus Brief in Garcia v. Google

    By Claudia Rebaza on Søndag, 20 April 2014 - 5:41pm
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    Banner by Erin of a spotlight on an OTW logo with the words 'Spotlight on Legal Issues'

    In our continuing effort to protect against online censorship that would harm fans, last week, the OTW filed an amicus brief in the case of Garcia v. Google. The case involves the scope and application of the safe harbor provisions of the DMCA and section 230 of the Communications Decency Act, which together prevent content hosts -- like YouTube, the AO3, and many others -- from being liable for what their users post.

    This case is partly a classic example of "bad facts make bad law," since the plaintiff -- an actress tricked into taking part in the film Innocence of Muslims -- has good reason to want the film taken down. But in response to her request, the court not only applied a tortured interpretation of copyright law (an issue addressed in many other briefs filed with the court at the same time), but also ignored important anti-censorship "safe harbor" laws.

    The court forced Google to not only to take the film down, but also to ensure that it is never re-posted. In so ruling, the court ignored the provisions that protect content hosts from having to "police" what their users post. These safe harbors exist to prevent online censorship, and they are important to fans. Just about every site that hosts fan content depends on them. Just imagine if every allegedly infringing or defamatory fanwork led to a lawsuit, or if fan sites were required to monitor their archives to make sure no one ever posted objectionable material: many of the sites fans rely on wouldn't be able to afford to operate. That's the sort of thing these laws are designed to prevent.

    For that reason, the OTW, along with Floor64 (the operator of TechDirt), filed a brief asking the court to reconsider its decision with an eye to the fact that although the decision may create a good factual result in this particular case, it makes terrible law that will harm freedom of expression on the Internet. As Techdirt explained in its post about the brief, "There is a reason why Congress was so intent on providing safe harbors, recognizing the incentives for broad censorship when you blame service providers for the actions of their users. Judge Kozinski appears to have ignored nearly all of Congress' intent in his ruling, and we're hopeful that (among the many other reasons why his ruling should be reviewed), the rest of the 9th Circuit will recognize that the original ruling has serious First Amendment implications, beyond just the basic copyright questions."

    For those interested in reading more, you can find this latest brief on our Legal Advocacy page along with past filings.

  • OTW Fannews: Takedowns from all sides

    By Claudia Rebaza on Tirsdag, 21 January 2014 - 7:39pm
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    • Forbes was one of many sites discussing YouTube's crackdown on fans who use video game footage to review or discuss games. "So at the same time as two major console makers are integrating video sharing into their systems, YouTube is cracking down on the video game community. Of course, YouTube’s response to this is vague and unhelpful...Now a number of video game publishers such as Ubisoft, Paradox Interactive and Capcom have stated publicly that people should fight the copyright claims, understanding full well the win-win situation for all involved."
    • On another front, booksellers are censoring erotica writers. "Some U.K.-based ebook retailers responded with public apologies, and WHSmith went so far as to shut down its website altogether, releasing a statement saying that it would reopen 'once all self-published eBooks have been removed and we are totally sure that there are no offending titles available.' The response in the U.S. was somewhat more muted, but most of the retailers mentioned in the piece, including Amazon and Barnes & Noble, began quietly pulling hundreds of titles from their online shelves." The reasons why were never stated. "'I'd get an email from them saying, 'We found the following books in violation of our content guidelines,' she recalls. 'But they wouldn't tell me why. There were no specifics.'"
    • If copyright or censorship fears weren't enough, apparently the study of erotic fiction is being targeted by some government cost-cutters. "The National Endowment for the Humanities has awarded $914,000 to help fund The Popular Romance Project since 2010, an ongoing study that explores 'the fascinating, often contradictory origins and influences of popular romance as told in novels, films, comics, advice books, songs, and internet fan fiction.'...The grants are highlighted in the 2013 'Wastebook,' an annual report ...that highlights taxpayer-subsidized programs that...are questionable or unnecessary, especially during a time when lawmakers are viciously debating spending levels and how to trim the nation’s $17 trillion debt."
    • Meanwhile Slate's Future Tense blog looked at How Artificial Intelligence Might Monetize Fan Fiction. "A fan fiction writer e-publishes a story he wrote using the main characters, a vegan vampire who runs a butcher shop and a werewolf who turns into a plumber at full moon. His book sells millions of downloads, too. Did the fan fiction writer do anything prohibited by law? Not necessarily. As U.S. copyright law anticipates only human authors, it is reasonable to read it as providing no copyright protection to authors that are not human. The fan fiction writer can use the Super Potter Brothers characters as much as he wants; they’re in the public domain. Anyone can use them and make money from them, including the movie studios."

    What fandom takedown cases have you seen? Write about them on Fanlore! Contributions are welcome from all fans.

    We want your suggestions! If you know of an essay, video, article, podcast, or link you think we should know about, comment on the most recent OTW Fannews post. Links are welcome in all languages! Submitting a link doesn't guarantee that it will be included in a roundup post, and inclusion of a link doesn't mean that it is endorsed by the OTW.

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